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July 31, 2018
 

What is the normal range for a creatinine blood test?

The typical reference range for serum creatinine is 60 to 110 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) (0.7 to 1.2 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL)) for men and 45 to 90 mmol/L (0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL) for women.

The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. The result of this blood test is useful, as it is an important marker of how well the kidneys are working.

Creatinine is the waste product of creatine, which the muscles use to make energy. Typically, creatinine travels in the blood to the kidneys where it leaves the body in the urine. High levels in the blood might indicate that the kidneys are not working correctly.

The creatinine blood test helps doctors to diagnose kidney disease. A poorly functioning kidney cannot filter creatinine as well as it usually does, which causes levels in the blood to rise.

Dietary choices and physical activity play an essential role in regulating blood creatinine levels. It is advisable to keep protein consumption within the recommended range for age and activity level.

Talk to a doctor about the treatment options, especially if the level of creatinine in the blood is high. If it persists at a high level, people may need to see a kidney specialist. Early treatment of rising creatinine levels is essential to prevent more significant kidney disease.

Review of multiple studies shows early hormone use not associated with cognitive problems in healthy women

Hormone therapy is not associated with cognitive harm for women if therapy begins around the age of menopause in healthy women, according to University of Wisconsin-Madison research presented this week at the 2018 Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC) in Chicago.

Fifteen years ago, the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) published surprising results suggesting that women using hormones for menopausal symptoms had an increased risk for dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

“An Update on Menopausal Hormone Therapy Trials” was presented by Carey Gleason, PhD, a scientist and clinician at the UW School of Medicine and Public Health and co- leader of the Minority Recruitment Satellite Program of the Wisconsin Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center.

Gleason and her team reviewed findings from several clinical trials in which cognitive and mood effects of hormone therapies were assessed. These include the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study – Cognitive and Affective Ancillary Study (KEEPS-Cog); the Early vs. Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol – Cognitive Endpoints (ELITE-Cog); the WHIMS – Young (WHIMS-Y) and a re-analysis of data from diabetic women enrolled in the WHIMS.

One important factor explored in the new research was timing of hormone use. Women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study were all age 65 or older. Most women considering hormone therapy will start the medication when menopause begins, which is usually around the age of 51.

Another factor influencing the effect of hormone use was health of the woman.  A critique of the WHIMS is that the many of the women enrolled in the study were at high risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. For example, more than 30 percent of women in the WHIMS had a body mass index consistent with morbid obesity.

“Recent findings have added to our understanding of the complex effects of hormones on the brain,” Gleason said. "Still, questions remain. With Dr. Kejal Kantarci from the Mayo Clinic our team at the University of Wisconsin in Madison is launching a follow-up study to the seminal KEEPS-Cog. In the KEEPS-Continuation study we will examine the long-term effects of menopausal hormone therapy, re-evaluating the women 12 years after they were enrolled in the original KEEPS."

"These data are sorely needed to guide women through the menopausal transition and to help them make personalized informed decisions about management of their menopausal symptoms and prevention of future health problems."

The impact of menopausal hormone therapy on aging and Alzheimer’s Disease remains unclear, as does the issue of different long-term effects of the various forms of hormone therapy.

APS Pharmacy makes no claims associated with efficacy of any products,  treatment, or research.

Read the original article here.

Free app for Menopausal Symptom Management

Download MenoPro

MenoPro is a free mobile app from The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) to help you and your clinician work together to personalize treatment decisions on the basis of a your personal preferences (hormone vs nonhormone options), taking into account your medical history and risk factor status. The app has two modes, one for clinicians and one for women, to facilitate shared decision making. MenoPro is available for iOS (iPhone, iPad) and for Android devices.

The MenoPro app has several unique features, including the ability to calculate your 10-year risk of heart disease and stroke, which is important in deciding whether a treatment option is safe for you. It also has links to online tools that assess your risk of breast cancer and osteoporosis and fracture.

MenoPro was developed in collaboration with NAMS and includes links to NAMS education materials, including a downloadable MenoNote on behavioral and lifestyle modifications to reduce hot flashes, and information pages on the pros and cons of hormone versus nonhormone therapy options, a discussion of pill versus patch therapy, and information on treatment options for vaginal dryness and pain with sexual activities, with links to tables with information about different medications. These pages can be printed out or directly accessed from your phone or tablet.

MenoPro already has thousands of users and has been very helpful to clinicians in their practices and to women in helping them make informed choices about managing menopause symptoms.

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